StackOverflow 2020开发者调查报告

StackOverflow发布了2020年开发者调查报告,此次有65000名开发者参与了调查,比较可惜的是中国参与的开发者却很少。不过这份报告也大概体现了目前全球开发者的情况了,下面我们来看看具体的报告结果:

关键结果

  1. 过去五年来,Python一直在稳步上升,不过在最喜欢的技术排名中,它从去年的第二掉到了今年的第三,Typescript反超到第二。Rust连续第五年登上了最受喜欢技术的头把交椅。
  2. 在所有的职位中,站点可靠工程师和DevOps专家仍然是薪水最高的职位。80%的受访者认为,DevOps是有用的,44%的组织有最少一个专门的DevOps雇员。
  3. 52%的人发现他所搜索的内容以前曾今看到过的时候的反应是:“嘿,我的老朋友”。
  4. 当遇到无法解决的问题如何做的时候,90%的人会选择来Stack Overflow寻找答案。
  5. 75%的开发者会偶尔加班 — 一个季度一天或两天。25%的人一个星期加班1-2天。
  6. 澳大利亚的受访者用于平均最长年限的编程年限16.9年,紧接着是英国和美国。相应的美国和英国的开发者平均年龄最大,分别是33.7和33.1岁。
  7. 0.3%的受访者在做这个调查之前从来没有访问过Stack Overflow。
  8. 超过40%的受访者在除了Stack Overflow之外的开发者社区注册了会员。
  9. 超过15%的人认为Stack Overflow比去年更好了,这是个好消息,但仍然需要继续努力。
  10. 我们仍然看到有色人种在专业开发中的比例较小,但的确也看到了一些这方面的进步。

受访者分布

中国的受访者目前只占到了0.57%。

开发者角色

开发者类型

看来这是一个多选项,55%的受访者是后端开发或者全栈开发,单纯的前端开发只有37.1%。

Developer, back-end 
Developer, full-stack 
Developer, front-end 
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications 
Developer, mobile 
Devops specialist 
Database administrator 
Designer 
System administrator 
Developer, embedded applications or devices 
Data or business analyst 
Data scientist or machine leaming specialist 
Developer, QA or test 
Engineer, data 
Academic researcher 
Developer, game or graphics 
Engineering manager 
Product manager 
Scientist 
Engineer, site reliability 
Senior executiveNP 
Marketing or sales professional 
371% 
239% 
108% 
8.1% 
72%

代码是否是一个爱好

很多人在工作之外还在努力写代码,78%的认为他们会把写代码作为一个爱好。从受访者来看,有家庭的人以及妇女则更多的倾向于写代码不是一个爱好。

经验

学习代码多少年

主要是从学习代码到现在多少年

Less than 5 years 
5 to g years 
10 to 14 years 
15 to 19 years 
20 to 24 years 
25 to 29 years 
30 to 34 years 
35 to 39 years 
40 to 44 years 
45 to 49 years 
50 years or more 
170% 
201% 
4.4% 
1.6%

专业写代码多少年

这个就是我们正常说的码农工作多少年了,65%的人少于10年。看来不管国内国外,工作10年还在写代码的人果然不是主流。

Less than 5 years 
5 to g years 
10 to 14 years 
15 to 19 years 
20 to 24 years 
25 to 29 years 
30 to 34 years 
35 to 39 years 
40 to 44 years 
45 to 49 years 
50 years or more 
0.4% 
| 0.1%

各种岗位写代码的年限

基本可以看出,有越高年限编程经验的人,所处的职位也是相匹配的。前端开发果然所我们所想的垫底了,也许是以前前端开发不是你们流行。

Senior executiveNP 
Engineering manager 
System administrator 
Developer, embedded applications or devices 
Database administrator 
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications 
Engineer, site reliability 
Devops specialist 
Data or business analyst 
Scientist 
Designer 
Developer, game or graphics 
Engineer, data 
Developer, QA or test 
Developer, back-end 
Developer, full-stack 
Developer, mobile 
Data scientist or machine leaming specialist 
Developer, front-end 
Academic researcher 
109 
87

几岁写第一行代码

最近流行写代码要从娃娃抓起,这个调查显示54%的人的第一行代码是在16岁之前写的,这果然验证写代码要从娃娃抓起的理论。

Youngerthan10years 
10t011yearsold 
12t013yearsold 
14t015yearsold 
16t017yearsold 
18t01gyearsold 
20t021yearsold 
22t023yearsold 
24t025yearsold 
26t027yearsold 
28t02gyearsold 
30yearsoldorolder

教育背景

受教育程度

主流的码农还是本科和研究生。

Bachelor's degree (BA, B.S., B. Eng., etc) 
Master's degree (MA, M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc) 
Some college/u niversity study without eaming a degree 
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German 
Realschule or Gymnasium, etc) 
Associate degree (RA., AS., etc) 
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D„ Ed. D., etc) 
Primary/elementary school 
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc) 
I never completed any formal education 
126%

本科专业

毫无疑问,计算机相关科学还是在码农中占据半壁江山。

Computer science, computer engi neering or software 
engineering 
Another engineering discipline (such as civil, electrical, 
mechanical, etc) 
Information systems, information technology, or system 
administration 
A natural science (such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc) 
Mathematics or staüstics 
Web development or web design 
A business discipline (such as accounting, finance, marketing, 
etc) 
A humanities discipline (such as literature, history, 
philosophy, etc) 
A social scienæ (such as anthropology, psychology, political 
science, etc) 
Fine arts or performing arts (such as graphic design, music, 
studio art, etc) 
I never declared a major 
A health science (such as nursing, pharmacy, radiology, etc) 
61.9%

教育的重要性

有人觉得教育无用论,那么在程序员这里教育程度有影响吗?85%的人还是觉得教育总归还是有用的。

Critically important 
Very important 
Fairly important 
Somewhat important 
Not at all important/not necessa ry 
161%

人口统计

种族和民族

看来这次调查的参与者还是白人居多啊。

White or of European descent 
South Asian 
Hispanic or Latino/a/x 
Middle Eastem 
East Asian 
Black or of African descent 
Southeast Asian 
Multiracial 
Biracial 
Indigenous (such as Native American, Pacific Islander, or 
Indigenous Australian)

性别

码农的世界女生果然还是少数,即使最多的美国也只有11.8%左右。

United 
Canada 
United Kingdom 
Australia 
Netherlands 
France 
India 
Germany 
Brazil 
Poland 
110% 
109% 
10.1%

变性人

99%的人还是正常的,哈哈。

性别和职位的关系

总得来说,各个职位男性都比女性多。在数据科学家,机器学习,前端方面女性的比例相对比较好一点。

Devops specialist 
System administrator 
25x 
Engi eer, site reliability 
Developer embedded applications or devices 
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications 
Engineering manager 
= 20x 
Database administrator 
Developer, game or graphics 
Produ manager 
Developer, mobile 
15x - - - Effgméer, data - 
Scientist 
QA or test 
igner 
Academic researcher 
Data or usiness analyst 
lox 
Data scientist or machine learning specialist 
5,000 
10,000 
Developer front-end 
15,000 
20,000 
Developer, bac -end 
Developer, full-stack 
25,01 
Number of developers

经验和性别

从学习代码开始,各个范围的年限中女性所占的比例

Less than 5 years 
5 to g years 
10 to 14 years 
15 to 19 years 
20 to 24 years 
25 to 29 years 
30 to 34 years 
35 to 39 years 
40 to 44 years 
45 to 49 years 
50 years or more 
0.3%

性取向

看来正常的性取向还是占多数的

Straight / Heterosexual 
Bisexual 
Gay or Lesbian 
921%

残疾状态

大概15%的人说自己有各种各样程度的残疾

I have an anxiety disorder 
I have a mood or emotional disorder (e.g. depression, bipolar 
disorder) 
I have a concentration and/or memory disorder (e.g. ADHD) 
I have autism / an autism spectrum disorder (e.g. Asper*r's) 
72% 
7.2%

年纪

大龄程序员还能生存吗,我们可以看到70%的人小于35,所以即使在国外,码农的35岁也是一个坎啊。

Younger than 15 years 
15 to 19 years 
20 to 24 years 
25 to 29 years 
30 to 34 years 
35 to 39 years 
40 to 44 years 
45 to 49 years 
50 to 54 years 
55 to 59 years 
60 years and older 
124%

年纪和国家

各个国家的码农平均年纪,美国的平均年龄是33.7。

United States 
United Kingdom 
Canada 
Netherlands 
Germany 
France 
Brazil 
Poland 
India 
337 
319

最流行的技术

语言

这个大概是大家最关注的的了,Javascript终于到达了第一。

JavaScript 
SQL 
Bash/She I WPowerSheI I 
Ruby 
Assembly 
Objective-C 
Julia

Web框架

哪个Web框架是最流行的呢?React还是Angular,还是Vue呢?看起来JQuery还是以其基础占据了榜单的榜首。

jQuery 
React.js 
Angular 
ASP.NET 
ASP.NETCore 
Vue.js 
Spring 
Angular.js 
Dja ngo 
La ravel 
Ruby on Rails 
Drupal 
25.1% 
219% 
21.2% 
164% 
161% 
14.2% 
111% 
4.4%

其他框架,库以及工具

Node.js在这里占据了榜首。

Node.js 
.NET Core 
Pandas 
React Native 
TensorFlow 
unity3D 
Ansible 
Teraform 
Flutter 
Cordova 
Xamarin 
Apache Spa rk 
Torch/PyTorch 
Puppet 
Unreal Engine 
Chef 
27.9% 
147% 
6.4% 
2.5%

数据库

业界现在最流行的数据库是什么,MySQL占据了第一,我软的SQL Server竟然排第三,倒也让我有点吃惊。

Microsoft SQL Server 
SQLite 
MongoDB 
Redis 
MariaDB 
Oracle 
Firebase 
Elasticsearch 
DynamoDB 
Cassandra 
IBM DB2 
330% 
264% 
16.8% 
138% 
7.1%

平台

Linux和Window毫无疑问还是占据榜首。

Windows 
Docker 
Android 
Pi 
Microsoft Azure 
WordPress 
Google Cloud Platform 
Kubemetes 
Heroku 
Arduino 
Slack Apps and I ntegrations 
IBM Cloud or Watson 
53.1% 
26.2% 
122% 
11.1% 
IC6% 
73%

最爱的,恐惧的和最想要的技术

最爱的语言

Rust已经连续五年占据榜首了。今年TypeScript超越了Python,到了第二位。

Typescript 
Julia 
JavaScript 
SQL 
Bash/She I WPowerSheI I 
Ruby 
Assembly 
Objective-C

最恐惧的语言

大家对VBA, Objective-C以及Perl是大家最不想使用的语言

Objective-C 
Assembly 
Ruby 
Bash/She I WPowerSheI I 
SQL 
JavaScript 
Julia 
57-1% 
37-1%

最想要的语言

这个是还没有使用过,但是想使用的语言排行榜,Python还是大家最想试试的

JavaScript 
Typescript 
SQL 
Ruby 
3ash/She I WPowerSheI I 
Assembly 
Julia 
Objective-C 
170%

最喜欢的Web框架

ASP.NET Core竟然比React.js更受欢迎,这倒是出乎了我的意料。

ASP.NET core 
React.js 
Vue.js 
Express 
Spring 
Django 
Flask 
Angu lar 
La ravel 
Ruby on Rails 
ASP.NET 
jQuery 
Drupal 
Angular.js

最喜欢的别的框架,库和工具

.NET Core是大家最喜欢的别的框架

.NET core 
Torch/PyTorch 
Te raform 
Nodajs 
Ansible 
React Native 
Apache Spark 
Unity 3D 
Unreal Engine 
Hadoop 
Xamarin 
Puppet

最喜欢的数据库

Redis目前大家最喜欢的数据,紧随其后的时候PostgreSQL和Elasticsearch。

PostgreSQL 
Mon»D3 
Firebase 
MariaD3 
Microsoft SQL Server 
DynamoD3 
SQLite 
My-SQL 
Cassandra 
Couchbase 
Oracle 
IBM 032 
471%

最喜欢的平台

Linux仍然是大家最喜欢的平台

Linux 
Raspberry Pi 
Microsoft Azu re 
Google Cloud Platform 
Arduino 
Slack Apps and Integrations 
IBM Cloud or 
WordP ress

开发环境和工具

开发者的主要操作系统

Windows是大家最主要的操作系统。

paseq-xnun

合作的工具

GitHub没有辜负最大交友网站的名声。

GitHub 
Slack 
Google (Docs, Meet, etc) 
Gitlab 
Microsoft Teams 
Microsoft Azu re 
Stack Overflow for Teams 
Face book Wo rkplace

研究工具

当研究一个新的工具的时候,超过四分之三的会使用免费账号来试试。

Start a free trial 
Ask developers I know/work with 
Visit developer communities like Stack Overflow 
Read ratinæ or reviews on third party sites like G2Crowd 
Research companies that have advertised on sites I visit 
Research companies that have emailed me 
771%

购买影响力

对于组织对技术的付费方面的影响,57%的人对自己的组织多多少少能有点影响。

Ι have a great deal of influence 
Ι have some influence 
have little or no influence

高薪技术

使用语言和工资的关系

使用Perl,Scala以及Go语言的工程师的平均薪水最高。

$74k 
$74k 
Ruby 
Bash/She Il/PowerSheII 
Objective-C 
Julia 
Typescript 
SQL 
Assembly 
JavaScript

相关技术

各种技术的相关性

这个主要是由同一个程序员使用的不同技术来确定的。大家可以看看,对你使用技术的相关技术是否有了解。

TensorFlow 
•s 
Ter"orm 
Ansiße 
ASP NET core 
oft Azure 
Torch/Py 
Rea 
Ruby on Rails 
Spark 
by 
Unreal Engine 
•r Old 
Type 
CD &tabase 
&nguage 
% of Respondents 
20.0% 
40.0% 
60.0% 
Xamann 
lar_js 
Objective-C 
pt 
SQL Server 
Maria B 
H 
css

学习和问题的解决

学习新技术的频率

不被淘汰的唯一方法就是持续学习,75%的人会一个月或至少一年更新学习一门新的技术。

e a)uo 
sJeaK ma; KRAa ao u 0 
JeaK e ao uo 
sguuow Ma; K•aA3

有问题的时候怎么处理

90%的人遇到问题会首先访问Stack Overflow。不亏是我辈的百科全书。

Visit Stack Overflow 
Do ottkrwork and come back later 
Watch help tutorial videos 
Call a coworker or friend 
Go for a walk or other physical activity 
Play games 
Panic 
Visit another developer community

看到访问过的反应

当我们搜索的结果是我们曾今看到过的反应,大多数人第一反应还是“嘿,兄弟”。

Hello, old friend 
Indifferent

雇主

雇佣状态

92%人还是全职,看来独立开发者还不是主流

Employed full-time 
Student 
Independent contractor, freelancer, or sdf-employed 
Not employed, but for work 
Employed part-time 
Not employed, and not for work 
Retired 
0.5%

加班

75%的人表示会偶尔加班或者每个季度加一两天班(这也能算加班,呜呜)

Rarely: 1-2 days per year or less 
Occasionally: 1-2 days per quarter but less than monthly 
Sornetimes: 1-2 days per month but less than weekly 
Often: 1-2 days per week or more

公司信息

公司大小

Just me - I am a freelancer, sole proprietor, etc. 
2 to 9 employes 
10 to 19 employees 
20 to 99 employees 
100 to 499 employees 
500 to 999 employees 
1,000 4,999 employees 
5,000 9,999 employees 
10,000 or more employees

入职

对入职流程是否满意,只有48.6%的人对自己公司的入职流程满意。

是否有DevOps专家

是否有DevOps专家看起来目前还是一半对一半。

Not sure

DevOps的重要性

80%的人觉得DevOps还是有用的。

Extremely 
Somewhat 
Neutral 
Not very 
Not at all 
17.4%

职业价值观

开发者对他们工作的感觉

65%的人还是对自己的工作满意的

寻找工作

寻找工作状态

83%的人不处于找工作的状态,看来骑驴找马的状态并不普遍。

I'm not actively but I am open to new opportunities 
I am not interested in new job opportunities 
I am actively looking for a job 
17.3%

谁正在找工作

把正在找工作的人安装职位进行了分解,大概可以看出哪些职位比较稳定

Academk researcher 
Data scientist or machine teaming specialist 
Data or business analyst 
Developer, game or graphics 
Develow, mobile 
Engineer, data 
Database administrator 
Deve10Rr, front-end 
Developer, emtkdded applications or devices 
Developer, QA or test 
back-end 
Developer, full-stack 
Engineer, reliability 
desktop or enterprise applications 
Sy<em administrator 
Product manager 
Engineering manager 
DevOps specialist 
Sen ior executive/VP 
176% 
157%

求职因素

为什么要找新的工作呢,毫无疑问,钱还是最重要的。

Better co mpensation 
Wanting to work with new technologies 
Curious about other opportunities 
Growth or opportunities 
Better workflife balance 
Trouble with leadership at my company 
to 
Having a bad day (or week or month) at work 
Trouble with my direct manager 
Just baa use 
Trouble with my teammates 
Wanting to share accomplishments with a wider network 
57.1%

求职中如何了解公司的

看来大家还是比较倾向于到各种八卦网站去看看对公司的评价。

Company reviews from third party sites (e.g. Glassdoor, Blind) 
Read company media, such as employee blogs or company culture 
videos 
Personal network - friends or family 
Read other media like news articles, fou nder profiles, etc. the 
company 
Directly asking current or past employees at the company 
Publicly available financial information (e.g. Crunchbase)

工作优先级

最重要的工作因素

能够想到使用什么技术以及同事的情况是码农们最关注的的。

Languages, frameworks, and other technologies I'd be working with 
Office environment or company culture 
Flex time or a flexible schedule 
Opportunities for professional development 
Rem Ote work options 
How widely used or impact-ful my work output would 
Industry that I'd in 
Family friendliness 
Financial wformance status of the company or organization 
Spaific department or team I'd be working on 
Diversity of the company or organization 
20.8%

工资

不同开发者的工资

做个manager不会错的,哈哈

Engineering manager 
Engineer, reliability 
DevOps specialist 
Engineer, data 
Data scientist or machine teaming specialist 
Developer, emtkdded applications or devices 
desktop or enterprise applications 
Data or business analyst 
Developer, full-stack 
Sy<em administrator 
back-end 
Developer, QA or test 
Database administrator 
Developer, game or graphics 
Develo—, front-end 
Develow, mobile 
Academk researcher

工资和经验以及开发类型的关系

经验越高工资越高,这也合理。

,ooo 
S70,ooo 
Data engineer 
S60:000 
Data scientist 
SRE 
DevO s specialist 
Product 
Embedd 
s developer 
eveloper,— 
desktop 
Number of 
respondents 
5.000 
Developer, 
full-stack 
Dev 
_end 
Scientist 
Data or business 
Developer, 
QA or test 
Developer, 
back-end 
Developer, 
game or graphics 
System administrator—4 
,ooo 
S40,ooo 
Educator 
Developer, 
mobile 
Academic researcher 
9 
O 
Designer 
10 
Database administrator 
11 
Average years of professional programming experience

工资经验和语言的关系

其实有些语言工资就是高,哈哈

,ooo 
S40,ooo 
Scala 
Rust 
Go 
Bash/Shell/P 
Haskell 
Julia 
pythori 
Kotlin 
escript SQL 
avaScript 
HTMWCSS 
Dart 
rShell 
ective-C 
Assembly 
o 
11 
p erl 
Number of 
respondents 
(D 5.000 
15.000 
20.000 
13 
Average years of professional programming experience

每周工作时间

大多数人还是正常工作。

Less than 30 hours 
30 to 34 hours 
35 to 39 hours 
40 to 44 hours 
45 to 49 hours 
50 to 54 hours 
55 to 59 hours 
60 to 64 hours 
65 to hours 
70 hours or more

原报告地址: https://insights.stackoverflow.com/survey/2020#work-onboarding

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